A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle. The pope named two saints during his pontificate: Catherine of Vadstena (1484) and Leopold III (1485). Duffy, Eamon (2006). [16], King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals. He then developed a fever. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII. Mindful of the origin of his success, Innocent IX supported, during his two months' pontificate, the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV of France (r. 1589–1610) in the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598), where a papal army was in the field. In 1467, he was made Bishop of Savona by Pope Paul II, but exchanged this see in 1472 for that of Molfetta in south-eastern Italy. In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. Gender: Male Re. His death, however, prevented the realisation of Innocent IX's schemes. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. [11], Nonetheless, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and to compile his views on witchcraft into his book Malleus Maleficarum, which was published in 1487. Darst, David H. (15 October 1979). Birthplace: Como, Italy Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified. Yale University Press. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope not to set him free. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope not to set him free. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. Rats were the ones that spread the bubonic plague aka black death. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. Any time the Sultan threatened war against the Christian Balkans, Innocent threatened to release this brother, who later died in a military expedition, fighting for King Charles VIII of France against Naples. Pope Innocent III in 1210. The secular power can without mortal sin carry out a sentence of death, provided it proceeds in imposing the penalty not from hatred but with judgment, not carelessly but with due solicitude. Pope Innocent XI raised Pignatelli to the rank of Cardinal in 1682. In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55). Pope Innocent XI. [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".[18]. The process of canonization was begun in 1714 and suspended in 1744. About Pope Innocent VIII Born at Genoa, 1432; elected 29 August, 1484; died at Rome, 25 July, 1492. [7], It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave. In memory of Innocent III, to whose lineage he belonged, he chose the name of Innocent XIII. Pope Alexander VIII (22 April 1610 – 1 February 1691), born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. But Innocent left a rich legacy. [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".[18]. Cem was later sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. ", Minnich (2005) notes that the attitude of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. He had a … The immediate conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII's death. Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry VIII in 1538, and opened the Council of Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. Soon after his succession he invested Emperor Charles VI with the Kingdom of Sicily and received his oath of … The following year, Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt. He was quickly ordained as a priest and the next day consecrated Innocent III. After being moved the first time in 1606 to the so-called aisle of the Sudarium, the monument to Pope Innocent VIII was placed in its current location in 1621, and arbitrarily recomposed. Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, responded to the bull by organizing a crusade to fulfill its order and launched an offensive in the provinces of Dauphiné and Piedmont. "During his Pontificate, the glory of the discovery of a new world."). In a fairly unimpressive papacy, the elderly pope became the first pontiff to publicly announce that he fathered illegitimate children. When Innocent VIII lay dying, his doctors decided that they would try a blood transfusion. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of 12 October 1492. Innocent VIII Was the First Pope to Acknowledge His Illegitimate Children Openly Cardinal Giovanni Cibo lived a worldly life before the curia elected him Innocent VIII in 1484. He was elected pope unanimously in September 1676, and took the name Innocent XI. ), of an old Genoese family. It was the first papal conclave to be held in the Sistine Chapel. After intense politicking by Della Rovere, Cibo was elected pope in 1484. The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of 12 October 1492. [25] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. [6], The papal conclave of 1484 was rife with factions, while gangs rioted in the streets. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'.[19]. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. Without cats, the rat population flourished. Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. His new Crusade had not been launched, the church was still struggling with heresy, and the young emperor-elect, Frederick II, was a growing concern. King Ferdinand I of Naples had supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. After his death. One of the most influential pontiffs of the Middle Ages, Innocent built the papacy into a more powerful, prestigious institution than it had ever been before. Innocent excommunicated Ferdinand in 1489 and invited King Charles VIII of France to come to Italy with an army and take possession of the Kingdom of Naples, a disastrous political event for the Italian peninsula as a whole. Innocent VIII, Pope Innocent VIII, Pope (1432–1492; r. 1484–1492) Giovanni Batista Cibo, elected pope in 1484, issued what has been termed one of the most important documents in the history of the Church’s fight against witchcraft: the Bull of 1484, Summis desiderantes affectibus (“Desiring with supreme ardor”). He then developed a fever. 1380–? Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull[13] denouncing the views of the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in a Crusade against them. In 1487, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. "Witchcraft in Spain: The Testimony of Martín de Castañega's Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529)". Pope, the title, since about the 9th century, of the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. Boniface VIII, original name Benedetto Caetani, (born c. 1235—died October 11, 1303, Rome [Italy]), pope from 1294 to 1303, the extent of whose authority was vigorously challenged by the emergent powerful monarchs of western Europe, especially Philip IV of France. Pope Innocent VIII (1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. "During his Pontificate, the glory of the discovery of a new world."). [24], Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy[6] "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". Pope Innocent III Was Known For Calling the Fourth Crusade and the Albigensian Crusade, approving the works of Saint Dominic and Saint Francis of Assisi, and convoking the Fourth Lateran Council. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. His grandnephew was Bindo Altoviti, one of the most influential bankers of his time and patron of the arts, being friends with Raphael and Michelangelo. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. 1380–? What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. Wikimedia Commons Innocent VII, who became pope in 1484, was the first pontiff to openly acknowledge eight illegitimate children, though he … Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. [16] In the case of Innocent he permitted trade with Barbary merchants in which foodstuffs would be given in exchange for slaves who could then be converted to Christianity. After the death of Urban, Innocent X made him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma in 1645, and, and then Cardinal-Priest of Sant' Onofrio. ", Minnich (2005) notes that the attitude of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. He was the son of the Roman senator, Aran Cibò, and Teodorina de' Mari. [6] The fall of Granada in January 1492, was celebrated in the Vatican and Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty. Saints & Sinners – A History of the Popes. [15], In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. Any time the Sultan threatened war against the Christian Balkans, Innocent threatened to release this brother, who later died in a military expedition, fighting for King Charles VIII of France against Naples. However, in 1503, after the death of Pope Alexander VI, he returned to Rome determined to become the next pope. The day after Pope Celestine III died, Innocent became one of the youngest men ever selected to sit in Peter's Chair. In 1692, Innocent XII issued the papal bull Romanum decet Pontificem which banned the curial office of the cardinal-nephew. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches: The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities,[10] who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. [24], Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy[6] "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". Pope Innocent VIII Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. [6] The fall of Granada in January 1492, was celebrated in the Vatican and Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between the Ottoman Empire and Christendom. King Ferdinand I of Naples had supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. In 1650, he was made Bishop of Novara. Sultan Bayezid sent a messenger to France and requested Cem to be kept there; he agreed to make an annual payment in gold for his brother's expenses. In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55). For more information follow the bold category link. Charles I, Duke of Savoy eventually interfered to save his territories from further confusion and promised the Vaudois peace, but not before the offensive had devastated the area and many of the Vaudois fled to Provence and south to Italy. The noted Franciscan theologian Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, whom Innocent in 1491 appointed as Apostolic Nuncio and Commissary, conjointly with the Bishop of Mauriana, was involved in reaching the peaceful agreement between Catholics and Waldensians. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'. After the death of Pope Innocent VIII in 1492, Alexander VI became the next pope and Giuliano della Rovere removed to France for his safety. His tomb at St. Peter's Basilica was sculpted by Filippo della Valle. Bayezid II ruled as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. The immediate conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII's death. 1455) and his wife Teodorina de Mari (c. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. Invariably short of money, […] Pope Innocent XIII (Latin: Innocentius Tertius Decimus; 13 May 1655 – 7 March 1724), born Michelangelo Conti, was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 245th Pope from 1721 until his death.. Michelangelo Conti was born in Poli, near Rome.. Conti was born into a family that which included several popes including Pope Innocent III. "For the glory of God", Rodney Stark, p. 330, Princeton University Press, 2003, Valori, quoted in Pirie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935, p.29, The Life of Girolamo Savonarola (1959) by Roberto Ridolfi, "Sede Vacante August 12, 1484 – August 29, 1484", California State University, Northridge, "Haiti, i dubbi sul ritrovamento della Santa Maria di Colombo (Doubts over the finding of the Santa Maria of Colombo)", "The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture – Paperback – David Brion Davis – Oxford University Press", Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Innocent_VIII&oldid=997089871, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles needing POV-check from November 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2019, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 23:33. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. Pope Innocent XI (Latin: Innocentius XI; 16 May 1611 – 12 August 1689), born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope from 21 September 1676 to his death on August 12, 1689. Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull[13] denouncing the views of the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in a Crusade against them. Constantly confronted with a depleted treasury, he resorted to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices and granting them to the highest bidders. [8] Cem died in Capua on 25 February 1495 on a military expedition under the command of King Charles VIII of France to conquer Naples. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58). Using his influence to provide for […] On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches: The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities,[10] who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between the Ottoman Empire and Christendom. In December 1688, Innocent received the diplomatic mission sent to the Vatican by Narai, the King of Siam. Curial office of the discovery of a new world. `` ) the objectionable expedient of creating offices! 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